In 1883, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled the 13th and 14th Amendments do not empower Congress to outlaw racial discrimination by private individuals in public accommodations. This decision would not be overturned with respect to the 13th Amendment until 1968, in Jones v. Alfred H. Mayer. See Civil Rights Cases 109 U.S. 3 (1883).

Do you think the course of American history would have changed if the 1875 law had not been overturned? How might it have been changed? What might American society look like today? Answer here.

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